Day 1 highlights Roundtable on the day’s discussions 30t Oct2019
This lecture will attempt to address the state-of-the-art with respect to many of these issues in the field of developmental science and recent work on clinical trials in nutrition. It will present definitions and characterizations of executive function, the brain areas that are thought to be involved in executive function, the normative developmental course of executive function (extending from infancy through adolescence), and the degree to which executive function is considered to be trainable or malleable
The early building blocks of executive functions (EFs) —higher-order cognitive processes underlying goal-directed behavior—are acquired during infancy and undergo remarkable improvement throughout this period. Professor Cuevas will discuss the emergence and development of EFs during infancy, with a focus on core processes of working memory and inhibitory control. In the span of a few short years, infants become capable of sustaining, shifting, and inhibiting their attention, and eventually use these gains in attentional control to hold and update information in mind and exert control over their behavior in the presence of interfering thoughts and actions. These rudimentary EF skills in infancy likely represent developmental precursors to more complex EFs. Professor Cuevas will review commonly used measures of infant EF, briefly highlighting biopsychosocial mechanisms that impact EF development and individual variation.
This talk describes the interplay between nutrition and proper brain structural, functional, and cognitive development, and the establishment of executive functions
Baby Connectome Project Enriched Study (BCP-Enriched): Evolution of Gut Microbiome during early infancy
The early environment has a long-lasting impact on the brain and behaviour. This section discusses how, through a better understanding of these interconnected systems, we will be able to predict and intervene in targeted and more efficacious ways very early in life, when interventions are most impactful.
High Levels of Both n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cord Serum Phospholipids Predict Allergy Development
Study found a high proportion of LCPUFAs among cord serum phospholipids was associated with respiratory allergy and sensitization at 13 years of age.
Mechanisms that early nutrition impacts later health including metabolic programing, brain development, gut microbiota, and healthy eating habits.
Discussing the medical advances in Neonatology in respiratory and neurodevelopment, late preterm outcomes, and the role of nutrition.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating inflammatory condition of the gut that primarily affects preterm infants. Whilst the aetiology varies from case to case, recent data show that the onset of NEC is closely associated with the pattern of gut microbiota, especially in the few days prior to NEC onset. Recent studies suggest Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) may be a key component of breast milk associated with reductions in NEC.
The volume of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and calories consumed by very vulnerable preemies significantly contributes to increased brain volume and white matter development, however additional research is needed to determine specific nutritional approaches that best support these infants' developing brains, according to research to be presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2018 annual meeting.